Insecta (Ectognatha)


Insecta synapomorphies:
Tentorium moved backward on head
Johnston's organ (registers pressure change)
No muscles in antennae from the scape and outwards
Coxa stuck on sternum
Tarsomeres
Claws on tarsus
Ovipositor on abdominal segmet 8-9
Long filament on abdomen

Archaeognatha
Jumping bristletail
Synapomorphies:
Big eyes that connect to each other
Muscles in abdomen for jumping
Forked labium (glossa, paraglossa)

Dicondylia synapomorphies:
5 tarsomeres
Short palps
Advanced ovipositor
Advanced trachea
Dicondylic mandibles

Zygentoma
Silverfish
Synapomorphy:
Special joint between cerci and abdominal segment 1

Pterygota synapomorphies:
2 pair of wings
Internal bridge as support for the wings
Pre- and metatentorium fused together
Copulation
Chemoreceptors on coxa
Spiracles with muscles

Paleoptera


Paleoptera - Ephemeroptera
Mayfly
Synapomorphies:
Subimago (larvae can fly)
Paired penises
Hindwings reduced

Paleoptera - Odonata
Dragonfly (Epiprocta)
Damselfly (Zygoptera)
Synapomorphies:
Direct flight mechanism
Tergum reduced
Warped thorax

Neoptera synapomorphies:
Wings can be folded unto back
Radial nerve on wing not forked at base
Ovipositor with gonoplac

Polyneoptera synapomorphies:
Lower hindwing increased in size
Gonads reduced in females
Gonads with phallus in males

Polyneoptera - Plecoptera
Stonefly
Synapomorphies:
3 tarsomeres
Mating organ between abdominal segments 9 and 10
Aquatic nymphs

Polyneoptera - Embioptera
Webspinner
Synapomorphies:
Soft wings (becomes hard when blood pumped into them)
Silk glands
Femur on hindleg increased in size

Polyneoptera - Zoraptera
Zorotypus
Synapomorphies:
Unsegmented cerci
Antennae with 9 segments
Simplified pattern on wings

Polyneoptera - Grylloblattodea
Icebug
Synapomorphies:
Waterabsorbing organ
Asymmetrical penis
Lacks ocelli and wings

Polyneoptera - Mantophasmatodea
Gladiator
Synapomorphies:
Areolum increased in size
Mouth pointing downward
Lacks ocelli and wings

Polyneoptera - Dermaptera
Earwig
Synapomorphies:
Head pointing forward
Cerci are claws
Reduced ovipositor

Polyneoptera - Mantodea
Preying mantis
Synapomorphies:
Front legs modified as weapons
Mandibles with thorns
Prothorax and coxa increased in length

Polyneoptera - Blattodea
Cockroach
Synapomorphies:
Flat body
Pronotum increased in size
Legs specialized for running

Polyneoptera - Blattodea - Isoptera
Termite
Synapomorphies:
Short antennae
Worker class with reduced genitalia
Possible to change social class

Polyneoptera - Orthoptera
Grasshopper (Caelifiera)
Cricket (Ensifera)
Synapomorphies:
Pronotum increased in size
Saltatory legs
Ovipositor hidden

Caelifera:
Short antennae
Sings by rubbing wings against femur
Active during day
Herbivore

Ensifera:
Long antennae
Sings by rubbing wings against each other
Active during night
Omnivore

Polyneoptera - Phasmatodea
Walking stick
Synapomorphies:
Prothorax with gland for chemical defense system
Egg with operculum
Unsegmented cerci

Paraneoptera


Paraneoptera synapomorphies:
Postclypeus incresed in size
Maxillae divided into 2 parts (lacinia and stipes)
2 layers in the sperm acrosome

Paraneoptera - Psocoptera
Booklouse
Synapomorphies:
Areola postica (area on front wing)
Small metathorax
Inner structures reduced (metathorax)

Paraneoptera - Thysanoptera
Thrips
Synapomorphies:
Fringe wings
Asymmetrical mouth parts
Pretarsus with bladder that secrets a sticky substance

Paraneoptera - Phthiraptera
Louse
Synapomorphies:
Egg with operculum and glue
Reduced mouth parts
Lacks wings

Hemiptera


Hemiptera synapomorphies:
Sucking mouth
Different canals for food and saliva
Lacks palps

Heteroptera synapomorphies:
Wing divided into 2 parts
Stink glands
Anterior sucking mouth

Homoptera (Hemiptera excluding Heteroptera) synapomorphy:
Wing undivied



Paraneoptera - Hemiptera - Sternorrhyncha
Aphid

Paraneoptera - Hemiptera - Auchenorrhyncha
Cicada

Paraneoptera - Hemiptera - Heteroptera
Pentatomidae
Pondskater